The combustion of fossil fuels for energy has steadily increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere. Of the numerous trace gases, carbon dioxide is a major component making up the majority of these emissions. Carbon dioxide sequestration involves the capture and secure storage of not only existing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere, but emitted CO2 as well. Since the Kyoto Protocol, concerns over combustion gas emissions have received a great deal of attention.
There are numerous energy-related approaches to managing CO2 that include several carbon free energy sources (e.g. nuclear, solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass energy). Scientists are also searching for ways to increase the efficiency of energy conversion so that smaller amounts of fossil fuel energy are required for the same energy output. However, although promising, these alternatives currently have a relatively small effect on current fossil fuel demand and usage. Fossil fuels continue to supply the overwhelming majority of the world's energy consumption. Increasing energy demands, the lag in converting to alternative energy sources, the global economic dependence on fossil fuels, and its relative low cost and high availability mean that fossil fuel consumption will likely continue for decades to come. As a result, there is a large amount of scientific research focused on effective methods to remove large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and industrial emission sources, and store it safely.