By Reid Lederer
The pharmaceutical supply chain has been in a state of evolution ever since it began. At varying points along the timeline, mini revolutions occurred. Around the turn of the century, apothecaries and the makers of dyes and textiles merged sciences and efforts to take advantage of unique discoveries on both sides. Companies such as Bayer, Schering, Sandoz, Abbott, Pfizer, Smith Kline, Eli Lilly, Squibb, and Upjohn emerged as apothecaries and drug suppliers between the early 1830s and late 1890s. Their production had a profound effect on human health. In 1900, one third of all deaths were from pneumonia, diarrhea, and tuberculosis. Today, only pneumonia remains on the top ten killer list (mainly as a side effect of cardiovascular disease and cancer).