By Matt Smith
Pharmaceutical preparations for treatment of conditions such as rashes, skin irritation, stings, fungal infections, etc. are normally supplied in the form of a cream or ointment as this provides an effective means of delivering the active ingredient directly to the required area. Products can be either a water in oil (w/o) or oil in water (o/w) emulsion, consisting of waxes, emollients and lubricants dispersed in an oil phase, and a water phase containing emulsifying, stabilizing and thickening agents, preservatives and in some cases, colorant. Active ingredients are dispersed in either phase or added when the emulsion has been formed and allowed to cool. Continue reading to learn how to reduce mixing times while improving product uniformity and consistency.