Standard HPLC column particles that ranged from 3.5 to 5 µm took advantage of traditional HPLC systems such as the Alliance HPLC with pressure limits of ~5000 psi. Advancements in particle technology introduced smaller sizes ranging from 2.x to 1.x µm, depending on vendor and chemistry. These changes required ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography systems capable of withstanding the significant increase in backpressure caused by the smaller particles and higher flow rates.
Modern chromatography systems have extended pressure limits and include smaller inner diameter tubings that prevent excessive band broadening and loss of critical resolution gained from the smaller particle columns. Explore a set of experiments that illustrate how mismatching particle size and liquid chromatographic systems can result in poor performance, and learn about the hardware changes that allow for scaling and modernization of chromatographic methods.